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看完《妖猫传》,我最想重温《长恨歌》,杨贵妃令人念念不忘的美如何翻成英文?

2018年01月06日 故事 ⁄ 共 9707字 ⁄ 字号 暂无评论

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本文部分转载自友邻通鉴,已获授权


最近,一部《妖猫传》Legend of the Demon Cat在院线热映。


影片改编自日本作家梦枕貘(米山峰夫)的小说《沙门空海之大唐鬼宴》(Samana Kukai)。耗时六年,陈凯歌用华丽的特效和浓烈的色彩打造了一部凄美的盛唐奇幻史诗。

花萼相辉楼里的酒池琼浆、歌舞升平……



瓮城内热闹非凡、车水马龙……


衣袂飘飘的白鹤少年,清新俊逸隔着屏幕喷薄而出。

这段唐玄宗散发击鼓的戏也将这部电影的“幻”与“狂”,以及影片中大唐的“盛”体现得淋漓尽致……

而在这歌舞升平的盛世背后,却有着一个深埋已久的秘密。也有人因此说,这部电影是披着奇幻外衣的一部凄美的关于爱的故事。


剧情简介

Synopsis

Taking place in the Tang Dynasty(618-907), a demon cat appears and breaks the peace of Chang’an (Xi’an’s ancient name), causing a series of strange events. Poet Bai Letian and monk Kong Hai join hands to investigate the death of Concubine Yang by following the trail left by the cat, unveiling a buried fact.

故事发生在唐朝,一只妖猫的出现搅动了长安的宁静,城里发生了一系列的奇闻怪事。诗人白居易与名叫空海的和尚跟随妖猫的足迹,一同调查杨贵妃的死因,一个深埋已久的秘密渐渐被揭开……

奇幻的外壳之下,这部电影实际讲述了一部凄美的关于爱的故事。


而电影实际的主角,并不是那两个为求真相到处跑,分别获得各自朋友圈当日微信运动冠军的白居易和空海……

而是她,杨玉环。

在片中,所有人都爱她。皇帝爱她、李白爱她、白居易爱她、白鹤少年爱她、日本遣唐使晁衡爱她……她似乎是一个虚幻的符号,象征着那个大唐盛世惊世的美。

但这个最受期待的角色,在电影进行到后三分之一时,才终于拖着曳地红袍,背对观众,款款地走进荧幕里。戏份最少,“戏”却最多。



随着玄宗的一声娇唤从画外传来,杨玉环悠悠地立住,迟疑了半刻,不疾不徐地转过头来。

在“极乐之宴”的幻彩里,你先看到一根长似戒尺闪着青光的玉簪,稳稳当当地插在一朵比大唐气象还要“高耸”的发髻里,再往下,是杨玉环的脸,仿佛预知到自己将倾的命运,她眼眶里端着浅浅的水,嘴边挂着模糊的笑意,脸色煞白。


张榕容的面孔并不是教科书式的古典美,单凭外貌来讲,这是一个争议颇大的杨贵妃。仿佛可以想见,陈凯歌为了这一幕花去半部戏的精力——如何表现杨贵妃的美。这个杨贵妃还是得到了不少观众认可。

当然,表现杨贵妃的美这件事不止陈凯歌做过。

古人的诗词,今人的影视,甚至试图了解中国历史的外国人,都曾穷词摘句地做过,无论是诗句,还是英文。

双语君(微信ID:Chinadaily_Mobile)通过两部描述贵妃的巅峰作品——白居易《长恨歌》李白的《清平调》——来看看什么叫美得“惊为天人”。


长恨歌
白居易

先来说说“贵妃”一词的译法,一般可以是concubine,是“妾”的意思,但为了突出贵妃的“高贵不凡”,翻译时会用


precious princess consort

honoured imperial consort


consort: n. (统治者的)配偶

在许渊冲的译本中,他对《长恨歌》的译法为The Everlasting Regret

贵妃“天生丽质”,芳华绝代,一回眸就能惊艳众人。

回眸一笑百媚生,六宫粉黛无颜色。

Turning her head, she smiled so sweet and full of grace

That she outshone in six palaces the fairest face. 


grace: n.优雅,魅力; 

outshine: v.使黯然失色

这两句写杨贵妃刚进皇宫得宠时的情形。她一回头,轻轻一笑,千姿百态娇媚横生。

这里许渊冲译作“she smiled so sweet and full of grace”,甜甜的优雅高贵的笑容,衬得六宫妃嫔,一个个都黯然失色,“outshine”是这一句的点睛之笔。


肤白貌美,皮肤白嫩光泽,离不开爱洗澡这个习惯:

春寒赐浴华清池,温泉水滑洗凝脂。

She bathed in glassy water of warm-fountain pool,

Which laved and smoothed her creamy skin when spring was cool.


glassy: adj. 光亮透明的 

lave: v. 洗刷

smooth: v. 变平滑

春寒料峭,贵妃移步华清池,享受滋润的温泉浴。想象一下,她凝脂般的肌肤该是怎样白美?许渊冲译作了“creamy skin”,像奶油一般白嫩光洁。


对于贵妃沐浴,外国人也有很多唯美的刻画,来看看怎么不露声色地说皮肤好:

 

sustains her skin's youthful glow.

保持肤质轻盈光洁。

spent countless hours bathing to keep her skin soft and supple

沐浴数时让皮肤柔嫩有弹性。


知识点:除了常见的soft之外,也可以glow用于形容皮肤光泽,或用supple表现皮肤充满弹性。


五官标致,貌美如花,可能就是古代的“氧气美女”吧。


芙蓉如面柳如眉,对此如何不泪垂!

Willow leaves like her brows and lotus like her face;

At the sight of all these, how could his tears not fall.

willow: n.柳树;

brow: n.眉毛;

lotus: n.荷花 

太液池里亭亭的荷花,就像贵妃的容颜,“lotus like her face”,央秧宫前摇曳的柳叶,就像她的眉毛,“Willow leaves like her brows”。这面庞清秀如花、这柳叶眉清新淡雅,让谁看到能不心生荡漾呢?

 

形容贵妃貌美如花的还有另外一句:


中有一人字太真,雪肤花貌参差是

Among them was a queen whose name was Ever True;

Her snow-white skin and sweet face might afford a clue.

 

贵妃死后,思念成疾的唐玄宗找道士帮忙,把天地翻了个遍,终于在蓬莱仙山中找到了贵妃的踪影。这么多娇媚的仙子,如何知道他的贵妃在哪里呢?


有一个叫太真的,雪白的肌肤,“snow-white skin”,花一样甜美的面容,“sweet face”,这就是了。

贵妃的美貌不仅如花,作为中国四大美人之一,她的面庞美到已经达到“羞花”级别了。


外国人将“羞花”称为:


A face that would shame all flowers.

清平调
李白

诗仙李白在他的《清平调》里也泼重墨描写杨贵妃的美。这篇的译文来自天津外国语大学教授赵彦春。


先来看那句在《妖猫传》中被吟诵了无数遍的句子……

 

片中妖猫附体的春琴(张雨绮饰)吟诵《清平调》


云想衣裳花想容,春风拂槛露华浓。

Her clothes like plumage and her face a rose,

Breeze pets the rails and the belle in repose.


plumage: n.鸟羽; 

breeze: n.微风; 

rail: n.栏杆; 

belle: n.美女; 

repose: n.休息

玄宗和杨妃在宫中欣赏着娇艳的牡丹花,一时兴起,就让当时供奉翰林的李白写几首应景的乐府诗。


《妖猫传》中极乐之宴上的李白


可怜从没见过贵妃真容的李白听完高力士的描述,只能极尽想象,于是写出了花儿像面容这样的绝句,赵彦春译作“her face a rose”,大约译出了美人似花,但失去了花似美人却还逊色于美人的韵味。


名花倾国两相欢,长得君王带笑看。

The rose and reigning belle smile each to each;

His Majesty’s eyes make a happy reach.


reigning: adj.卫冕的; 

His Majesty: 陛下

 

红艳牡丹和贵妃在此情此景相得益彰,似乎已经融为一体,花即人,人即花,看得君王春心荡漾。赵彦春译作了“The rose and reigning belle smile each to each”,牡丹和绝代佳人相看相笑,也是情趣盎然。


最后,让我们来细读一遍《长恨歌》,感受一下这“倾国倾城”的美和“绵绵无绝期”的恨。


《长恨歌中英文对照

翻译:许渊冲

汉皇重色思倾国,御宇多年求不得。

杨家有女初长成,养在深闺人未识。

The beauty-loving monarch longed year after year

To find a beautiful lady without peer.

A maiden of the Yangs to womanhood just grown,

In inner chambers bred, to the world was unknown.

天生丽质难自弃,一朝选在君王侧。回眸一笑百媚生,六宫粉黛无颜色。

Endowed with natural beauty too hard to hide,

One day she stood selected for the monarch’s side.

Turning her head, she smiled so sweet and full of grace

That she outshone in six palaces the fairest face.

春寒赐浴华清池,温泉水滑洗凝脂。

She bathed in glassy water of warm-fountain pool,

Which laved and smoothed her creamy skin when spring was cool.

侍儿扶起娇无力,始是新承恩泽时。

Upborne by her attendants, she rose too faint to move,

And this was when she first received the monarch’s love.

云鬓花颜金步摇,芙蓉帐暖度春宵。

Flowerlike face and cloudlike hair, golden-headdressed,

In lotus-flower curtain she spent the night blessed.

春宵苦短日高起,从此君王不早朝。

She slept till sun rose high, for the blessed night was short,

From then on the monarch held no longer morning court.

承欢侍宴无闲暇,春从春游夜专夜。

In revels as in feasts she shared her lord’s delight,

His companion on trips and his mistress at night.

后宫佳丽三千人,三千宠爱在一身。

In inner palace dwelt three thousand ladies fair;

On her alone was lavished royal love and care.

金星妆成娇侍夜,玉楼宴罢醉和春。

Her beauty served the night when dressed in Golden Bower

Or drunk with wine and spring at banquet in Jade Tower.

姊妹弟兄皆列士,可怜光彩生门户。

遂令天下父母心,不重生男重生女。

All her sisters and brothers received rank and fief

And honours showered on her household, to the grief

Of the fathers and mothers who’d rather give birth

To a fair maiden than any son on earth.

骊宫高处入青云,仙乐风飘处处闻。缓歌慢舞凝丝竹,尽日君王看不足。

The lofty palace towered high into blue cloud,

With wind-borne music so divine the air was loud.

Seeing slow dance and hearing fluted or stringed song,

The emperor was never tired the whole day long.

渔阳鼙鼓动地来,惊破霓裳羽衣曲。

But rebels beat their war drums, making the earth quake

And “Song of Rainbow Skirt and Coat of Feathers” break.

九重城阙烟尘生,千乘万骑西南行。

A cloud of dust was raised o’er city walls nine-fold;

Thousands of chariots and horsemen southwestward rolled.

翠华摇摇行复止,西出都门百馀里。

Imperial flags moved slowly now and halted then,

And thirty miles from Western Gate they stopped again.

六军不发无奈何,宛转蛾眉马前死。

Six armies would not march -- what could be done? -- with speed

Until the Lady Yang was killed before the steed.

花钿委地无人收,翠翘金雀玉搔头。

None would pick up her hairpin fallen to the ground

Or golden bird and comb with which her head was crowned.

君王掩面救不得,回看血泪相和流。

The monarch could not save her and hid his face in fear;

Turning his head, he saw her blood mix with his tear.

黄埃散漫风萧索,云栈萦纡登剑阁。

The yellow dust spread wide, the wind blew desolate;

A serpentine plank path led to cloud-capped Sword Gate.

峨嵋山下少人行,旌旗无光日色薄。

Below the Eyebrow Mountains wayfarers were few;

In fading sunlight royal standards lost their hue.

蜀江水碧蜀山青,圣主朝朝暮暮情。

On western waters blue and western mountains green

The monarch’s heart was daily gnawed by sorrow keen.

行宫见月伤心色,夜雨闻铃肠断声。

The moon viewed from his tent shed a soul-searing light,

The bells heard in night rain made a heart-rending sound.

天旋地转回龙驭,到此踌躇不能去。

马嵬坡下泥土中,不见玉颜空死处。

Suddenly turned the tide. Returning from his flight,

The monarch could not tear himself away from the ground

Where ‘mid the clods beneath the slope he couldn’t forget

The fair-faced Lady Yang, who was unfairly slain.

君臣相顾尽沾衣,东望都门信马归。

He looked at ministers, with tears his robe was wet;

They rode east to the capital, but with loose rein.

归来池苑皆依旧,太液芙蓉未央柳。

Back, he found her pond and garden in the old place,

With lotus in the lake and willows by the hall.

芙蓉如面柳如眉,对此如何不泪垂!

春风桃李花开日,秋雨梧桐叶落时。

Willow leaves like her brows and lotus like her face;

At the sight of all these, how could his tears not fall

Or when in vernal breeze were peach and plum full-blown

Or when in autumn rain parasol leaves were shed?

西宫南内多秋草,落叶满阶红不扫。

In western as in southern court was grasso’er grown;

With fallen leaves unswept the marble steps turned red.

梨园子弟白发新,椒房阿监青娥老。

Actors, although still young, began to have hair grey;

Eunuchs and waiting maids looked old in palace deep.

夕殿萤飞思悄然,孤灯挑尽未成眠。迟迟钟鼓初长夜,耿耿星河欲曙天。

Fireflies flitting the hall, mutely he pined away;

The lonely lampwick burned out; still he could not sleep.

Slowly beat drums and rang bells; night began to grow long;

Bright shone the Milky Way; daybreak seemed to come late.

鸳鸯瓦冷霜华重,翡翠衾寒谁与共?悠悠生死别经年,魂魄不曾来入梦。

The lovebird tiles grew chilly with hoar frost so strong,

And his kingfisher quilt was cold, not shared by a mate.

One long, long year the dead and the living were parted;

Her soul came not in dreams to see the brokenhearted.

临邛道士鸿都客,能以精诚致魂魄。

A Taoist sorcerer came to the palace door,

Skilled to summon the spirit from the other shore.

为感君王辗转思,遂教方士殷勤觅。

Moved by the monarch’s yearning for the departed fair,

He was ordered to seek for her everywhere.

排空驭气奔如电,升天入地求之遍。上穷碧落下黄泉,两处茫茫皆不见。

Borne on the air, like flash of lightning he flew;

In heaven and on earth he searched through and through.

Up to the azure vault and down to deepest place,

Nor above nor below could hee’er find her trace.

忽闻海上有仙山,山在虚无缥缈间。楼阁玲珑五云起,其中绰约多仙子。

He learned that on the sea were fairy mountains proud

That now appeared, now disappeared amid the cloud

Of rainbow colours where rose magnificent bowers

And dwelt so many fairies as graceful as flowers.

中有一人字太真,雪肤花貌参差是。

Among them was a queen whose name was Ever True;

Her snow-white skin and sweet face might afford a clue.

金阙西厢叩玉扃,转教小玉报双成。

Knocking at western gate of palace hall, he bade

The porter fair to inform the queen’s waiting maid.

闻道汉家天子使,九华帐里梦魂惊。

When she heard there came the monarch’s embassy,

The queen was startled out of dreams in her canopy.

揽衣推枕起徘徊,珠箔银屏迤逦开。云鬓半偏新睡觉,花冠不整下堂来。

Pushing aside the pillow, she rose and got dressed,

Passing through silver screen and pearl shade to meet the guest.

Her cloudlike hair awry, not full awake at all,

Her flowery cap slanted, she came into the hall.

风吹仙袂飘飘举,犹似霓裳羽衣舞。

The wind blew up her fairy sleeves and made them float

As if she danced the “Rainbow Skirt and Feathered Coat.”

玉容寂寞泪阑干,梨花一枝春带雨。

Her jade-white face crisscrossed with tears in lonely world

Like a spray of pear blossoms in spring rain impearled.

含情凝睇谢君王,一别音容两渺茫。

She bade him thank her lord, lovesick and brokenhearted;

They knew nothing of each other after they parted.

昭阳殿里恩爱绝,蓬莱宫中日月长。

Love and happiness long ended within palace walls;

Days and months appeared long in the fairyland halls.

回头下望人寰处,不见长安见尘雾。

Turning her head and fixing on the earth her gaze,

She saw no capital ’mid clouds of dust and haze.

唯将旧物表深情,钿合金钗寄将去。

To show her love was deep, she took out keepsakes old

For him to carry back, hairpin and case of gold.

钗留一股合一扇,钗擘黄金合分钿。

Keeping one side of the case and one wing of the pin,

She sent to her dear lord the other half of the twin.

但教心似金钿坚,天上人间会相见。

“If our two hearts as firm as the gold should remain.

In heaven or on earth we’ll sometime meet again.”

临别殷勤重寄词,词中有誓两心知。

At partings he confided to the messenger

A secret vow known only to her lord and her.

七月七日长生殿,夜半无人私语时。

On seventhday of seventh moon when none was near,

At midnight in Long Life Hall he whispered in her ear,

在天愿作比翼鸟,在地愿为连理枝。

“On high, we’d be two lovebirds flying wing to wing;

On earth, two trees with branches twined from spring to spring.”

天长地久有时尽,此恨绵绵无绝期!

The boundless sky and endless earth may pass away,

But this vow unfulfilled will be regretted for aye.

编辑:李雪晴 焦洁


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